Causes of TBI
According to the CDC (United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), there are approximately 1.5 million to 2 million people in the U.S. who sustain a traumatic brain injury each year.
Approximately 270,000 people experience a moderate to severe TBI and 50,000 to 70,000people die from TBI each year with another 85,000 people suffer long term disabilities.
The causes of TBI are diverse. The top three causes are automobile accidents, Recreational activities and falls. TBI is a major health concern for children ages 0-4, male adolescents (all you skate boarders and Xtreme sport guys) young adults 15-19 and the elderly are the groups at highest risk for TBI.
Approximately 20% of TBI injuries are due to violence. Unfortunately for children the main cause for TBI is domestic violence/abuse and shaken baby syndrome.
It is estimated that 230,000 to 275,000 people are hospitalized for TBI and survive, while approximately 80,000 to 90,000 of these survivors live with significant disabilities as a result of the injury. It is believed that 5.3 million Americans are currently living with some symptoms related to having a TBI.
Causes of Injury
1. Open Head Injury (bullet wounds, etc.)
2. Closed Head Injury (slip & falls, motor vehicle crashes, etc.)
3. Deceleration Injuries (Diffuse Axonal Injury)
Diffuse axonal shearing: when the brain is slammed back and forth inside the skull it is also being compressed and stretched. Because the brain is very soft tissue made up of nerve fibers called neurons with long fragile axons that make the connection to other neurons, when the impact is strong enough, axons can be stretched until they are torn. This is called axonal shearing. When this happens, the neuron dies. After a severe brain injury, there is massive axonal shearing and neuron death.
4. Chemical / Toxic (Also known as metabolic disorders)
5. Hypoxia (Lack of Oxygen to the brain)
6. Anoxia (no oxygen to the brain)
8. Infections (encephalitis, meningitis)